Wednesday, December 28, 2011

Hop Flavor Profile List



Though it has taken me months, perhaps years to aquire through notes and memory, I have finally compiled a master list of every hop flavor and aroma of common and uncommon hop varieties. Below is a complete list of the many different hops used in homebrewing:


ADMIRAL 11-15% Bittering
Said to be citrusy, orange flavored. A good compliment hop to Targets. Good dual purpose hop.
Use For: English style IPA and other ales
Substitutes: Challenger, Northdown


AHTANUM 3.5-6% Finishing
Fruity flavors and a spicy aroma, a little woodsy, earthy. This is grown in small quantities right now.
Use For: American Style ales
Substitutes: Amarillo, Cascade


AMARILLO  8-10%  Bittering, Flavor
A flowery, citrus-like aroma (more orange than grapefruit) with medium bittering value that is gaining acceptance as a substitute for Cascade due to its hardy nature. 
Used For: Good for  bittering and flavor, but an acceptable aroma hop as well. Pale Ales, IPAs, Porters
Substitutes: Cascade, Centennial


APOLLO 18-21% Bittering
A Super High alpha variety with Citrus notes, emphasis on orange, resiny, spicey. 
Use For: Any beer with a big hop profile, definitely all american!
Substitutes:Magnum, Columbus


AQUILA 6-7.5% Finishing
Recently developed as an aroma hop originating in the U.S.
Use For: American ales
Substitutes: Cluster, Galena


BANNER 9-11% Dual PurposeSimilar to Aquila and Cluster with good yield.
Used For:Bittering with good flavor. Light and dark American lagers.
Substitutes:Aquila, Cluster, Galena


BRAMLING CROSS 5-8% All Purpose
Variety Bramling crossed with a male seedling from a Manitoba female. Blackcurrant, lemony aroma.
Used For: Can be good for spiced ales
Substitutes: Bullion, Northern Brewer and Galena


BREWERS GOLD 6-9% All Purpose
Sibling of and similar to Bullion only maturing earlier and more disease resistant. English/wild Canadian cross. Pungent English character.
Used for: Mainly bittering. Stouts and Dark ales.
Substitutes: Bullion, Northern Brewer and Galena ,Bramling Cross.


BULLION 6.5-9%  Bittering
Intense,black currant aroma, spicy and pungent.  One of the earliest high alpha hops in the world. Raised in 1919
in England from a wild Manitoban female crossed with an English male hop.
Used for: Mainly bittering. Stouts and Dark ales.
Substitutes: Brewers Gold, Northern Brewer and Galena ,Bramling Cross.


CASCADE 4-7%  All purpose
Flowery, citrus & spice with grapefruit the noticeable fragrance quite often. This medium aroma balances the low bittering value. Derived from a cross between fuggles and the Russian hop Serebrianker. Very popular hop among craft brewers.
Used For: Good for flavor and aroma, but an acceptable bittering hop. Pale Ales, IPAs, Porters
Substitutes: Amarillo, Centennial, Ahtanum


CENTENNIAL 9-11% Bittering - Aroma
Flowers & citrus most evident. A medium aroma with mid to high bittering value makes it a dual purpose choice. Cross between Brewer's Gold and a selected USDA male.
Used For: Aromatic but acceptable for bittering. Medium to Dark American Ales, IPAs.
Substitutes: Cascade, Amarillo


CHALLENGER (UK) 7-10% All purpose
Mild to Moderate aroma, quite spicy. One of the few recognized all-purpose hops combining moderate amounts of alpha acid with a good kettle aroma.
Used For: Popular bittering hop used primarily in the UK.  British ales and lagers
Substitutes: Northern Brewer, Perle


CHINOOK 11-13% Bittering
Mild to medium-heavy, spicy, distinct piney aroma like a pine forest washed with exotic spice and infused with grapefruit. This alluring aroma and a high bittering value has gained this hop full respect from craft & major brewers.   Cross between Petham Golding and USDA select male
Used For: Strong bittering ability. Most beer styles from Pale Ales to Lagers
Substitutes:: Eroica, Galena,Cluster,Nugget, Bullion


CITRA 10-11% All Purpose
Very fruity Citrus, peach, apricot, passion fruit, grapefruit, lime, melon, gooseberry, lychee fruit, pineapple, mango, papaya and other tropical fruit flavors and aromas.  A very new high alpha Hallertauer Mittelfrüh, Tettnanger, EKG  hybrid with distinctive citrus aroma.
Use For: Pale ales, IPA
Substitutes: Simcoe ,and other fruity citrusy "C" hops


CLUSTER 5.5-8.5% All Purpose
Floral aroma, Excellent general purpose hop with medium and well-balanced  bittering potential and no undesirable aroma properties. Good for Dark beers.
Used For: Bittering with good flavor. Light and dark American lagers.
Substitutes: Galena,Chinook, Eroica.


COLUMBIA 12-16% Bittering
A Centenial substitute. Very pungent, aromatic, and clean tasting.
Used For: ambers, ales, pale ales, porters and stouts.
Substitutes: Centennial, chinook, eroica


COLUMBUS 13-16% All Purpose
Earthy, spicy, pungent, with some citrus overtones.  Not overwhelmingly citrus like Cascade. High on the bittering scale yet also valued for its oil content creates a hop that is an interesting dichotomy of sharp and herbal, suprisingly pleasant aroma.
Used For: Bittering mainly, good flavor. American IPAs & Pale Ales, Stout, Lager
Substitutes: Centennial, Chinook, Galena, Nugget, AKA Zeus/Tomahawk


COMET 8-11% Bittering
A rare U.S. hop. Used primarily for their bittering character. Wild American aroma that is objectionable to some brewers, Comet today is no longer grown commercially.
Used For: Most ales and lagers
Substitutes: Galena


CRYSTAL 3-5%   Finishing
Mild and pleasant, a delicate blend of spices and flowers. Low bittering value adds to the charm. Known as a triploid, three hops contributing characteristics: Cascade, Brewer's Gold and Early Green..
Used For: Aroma.  German-style Pilsner, Lager, Kölsch, ESB, Belgian Ales
Substitutes: Liberty,Mt. Hood,German Hallertau, Ultra


EROICA  11-13% All Purpose
Aroma is quite strong, but not unpleasant. Better aroma than many high alpha acid hops. Suitable for general bittering. Bred by open pollination of Brewer's Gold.
Used For: bittering and good aroma for high alpha hops (use sparingly). Pale ales, dark ales and Stouts
Substitutes: Chinook,Cluster,Galena,Nugget.


FIRST GOLD 6-9% All Purpose
Pleasant citrus/apricot nose that is outstanding in ESB's, IPA's, or fruit beers.  Dwarf hop with fine English Golding character with Higher alpha.
Use For: English style ales, porters, fruit beers
Substitutes: any Golding variety


FUGGLE  4.0-5.5%   Finishing
Classic English aroma hop with moderate bittering value. Mild and pleasant, spicy, soft, woody, with some fruit tones. Also known over-seas as Styrian Golding.
Used For: Finishing, Dry hopping. English ales, especially Pale ales, Porters, Stouts.
Substitutes: Willamette, East Kent Goldings, Styrian Goldings.


GALENA 12-14% Bittering
Medium aroma but pleasant hoppiness.  Bred from Brewer's Gold by open pollination. Excellent high alpha acid hop with balanced bittering profiles paired with acceptable hop aroma.
Used For: Very bitter, but blends well with finishing hops. American ales, stouts and lagers. Suitable for all beer styles.
Substitutes: Nugget, Cluster, Chinook.


GLACIER 5-6% Finishing
Pleasant aroma of citrus mixed with sweet fruity of pear or apricot.  Aroma seems to be the strong suit of this hop.
Use For: American ale or ESB
Substitutes: Palisade


GOLDING 4-5% Finishing
Refined Gentle, Fragrant and pleasant with flowery tones,  that has produced some of England's best bitters.
Used For: Classic English ales, kettle hopping, dry hopping, spicy flavor. All English-style beers (Ales, ESB, Bitter), Belgian-style Ales
Substitutes: Kent Goldings, Fuggle, Willamette.


GREEN BULLET (NZ) 9-11%  Bittering   
A high alpha hop with fruity and resiny flavors and floral aromas, from New Zealand.  Considered a bittering variety typically for Lager, Green Bullet also carries a solid Styrian characteristic of subtle spiciness which finds it at home in a freshly drawn pint of Bitter or an Irish-style Dry Stout.
Used For: Lagers, some ales and stouts
Substitutes:


HALLERTAU-Domestic 5-6% Finishing
Named for its origins in the Hallertauer region of Germany, this is a noble aroma hop with ever-so-subtle flower and spice fragrances defining its “über alles” superiority.
Used For: Good all around bittering and finishing. Stock ales, Altbiers, Belgian ales, and Continental style lagers. Pilsner, Bock, Lager, Wheat
Substitutes Mt. Hood, Liberty, Crystal.


HALLERTAU-German 3.5-5% Finishing
Traditionally a superior German aroma hop. Mild to semi-strong aroma , the most popular variety. Excellent flavor.
Used For: Versatile bittering and finishing. Wheats, Altbiers, Pilseners, Belgian ales, American and German lagers.
Substitutes Mt. Hood, Liberty, Crystal.


HALLERTAU HERSBRUCKER 3-5% Finishing
Drier, spicier than Hallertauer. Most important aroma variety in Germany.
Used For: Aroma and flavor. German ales and lagers.
Substitutes: Mt Hood


HALLERTAU MITTELFRUH 4-6%
Typical characteristics of a hallertau mild and pleasant aroma
Use For: Good all around bittering and finishing. Stock ales, Altbiers, Belgian ales, and Continental style lagers. Pilsner, Bock, Lager, Wheat
Substitutes:


HERALD 11-13% Bittering      New high-alpha acid dwarf hop. Not much info available.
Used For: Primarily bittering
Substitutes:


HORIZON 12-14% Bittering
A cross between Brewers gold and German(probably Hallertau) aroma hops bred in Oregon.
Used For: American ales and lagers.
Substitutes: Magnum


HULLER 4-6% All Purpose
A universal hop for both bittering and aroma.
Used For: Bitters, German ales and lagers
Substitutes:


KENT GOLDING - U.K. 3-5% Finishing
Refined Gentle, Fragrant and pleasant with flowery tones.  Traditional old English hop. Referred to as East Kent Goldings if grown in East Kent, Kent Goldings if grown in Mid-Kent, and  Goldings if grown elsewhere.
Used For: Classic English ales, kettle hopping, dry hopping, spicy flavor. All English-style beers (Ales, ESB, Bitter), Belgian-style Ales
Substitutes: Goldings (British Columbia), Fuggle, Willamette.


LIBERTY  3-5%  Finishing
American cousin to Hallertau with very similar flower and spice characteristics, mild and pleasant, quite fine. Best used as a finishing hop in German-style lagers.
Used For: Finishing. American and German ales, Lager, Pilsner, Bock, Kölsch
Substitutes: German Hallertau, Mt. Hood, Crystal.


LUBLIN -Poland 3-4.5% Finishing
Mild and typical of noble aroma types. Another source of the classical noble-aroma type hop with long and strong traditions. Widely believed to be a clone of Saaz.
Used For: Finishing
Substitutes: Czech Saaz, Tettnang


MAGNUM 12-17% Bittering
A German thoroughbred with limited Pacific Northwest plantings. Prized for its high bittering value, the aromatic nature is one of spice and citrus, but is minimal compared to its big bittering.
Used For: Pale Ales, IPAs, German-style Lager
Substitutes: Galena


MILLENIUM 14-16% Bittering
Very similar to Nugget hops in aroma and flavor.  Some descriptors included floral, resiny, and a bit spicy/herbal.
Use For: American Style Ales
Substitutes: Nugget, Columbus


MOTUEKA (NZ) 6.5-7.5% All Purpose
An excellent hop in many applications from first kettle additions through to late.  This hop offers a unique aroma and flavour making it suitable for producing bigger more traditional style Lagers, especially Bohemian Pilsener. Excellent when employed in multiple additions from a single hop bill and sits well on the palate to balance speciality malt sweetness. An excellent variety for Belgian Ales and gives a real edge to Cask Bitter.

Substitutes:"


MT. HOOD 5-8%  Finishing
Hybrid of Hallertau with similar mild flower/spice aroma characteristics with a hint more of the forest. “Clean” commonly describes it, with similarities to the German Hallertau and Hersbrucker varieties
Used For: Aroma and flavor. American and German ales and lagers.
Substitutes: German Hallertau, Liberty, Crystal.


NELSON SAUVIN (NZ) 12-13% Bittering
Described to have a white wine fruitiness of "crushed gooseberries".  A hop that requires judicious application in the brew house, this truly unique dual-purpose variety can be used to produce big punchy Ales as well as subtle yet bitter Lagers. The fruitiness may be a little overpowering for the un-initiated, however those with a penchant for bold hop character will find several applications for this true brewer's hop.
Used For: ales and lagers
Substitutes:


NEWPORT 10-17% Bittering
Mild aroma.  Fairly pungent, resiny flavor.  An Oregon original derived from Brewers gold, Mittelfruh, Late Grape, Belgium 31, and Fuggle.  Newport hops were bred as a potential replacement to Galena based on their resistance to mildew.  Widely used by the Rogue Brewery.
Used For: virtually any style
Substitutes: Galena


NEW ZEALAND HALLERTAUER 8-9% Finishing - All purpose
Bred from the German Hallertau Mittelfrüh, this aroma hop is characterized by woodsy, citrusy notes and a clean taste that has staying power.   Higher alpha makes it an acceptable bittering hop as well.
Used For:  Organic Pilsner, Lager, German-style beers
Substitutes: Hallertau Mittelfrüh


NOBLE Hops
Hallertauer Mittelfrüh (from the Hallertau region of Bavaria)
Tettnanger Tettnang (Tettnang is a small town in southern Germany)
Spalter Spalt (Spalt is a town in Bavaria)
Saaz (which is the German name of the city of Žatec in the Czech Republic where this hop originates from)


NORTHDOWN  7-10% Dual Purpose     
Mellow English higher alpha-acid hop.  Similar to Northern Brewer, but with a better flavor and aroma than domestic NB; A clean bittering hop.
Used For: General purpose bittering, flavor and aroma for heavier ales.  Porters.
Substitutes: Northern Brewer, Target


NORTHERN BREWER 7-11%  All Purpose
A true dual-purpose hop containing moderate amounts of alpha acids combined with an acceptable aroma profile.  Neutral, clean aroma, woody with evergreen and mint overtones and slightly higher-than-average bittering value.
Used For: Good for bittering with strong flavors and very fragrant. Steam beers, English-style Ales, ESB, Bitter, Porter, and German lagers.
Substitutes: Galena, Perle.


NUGGET 11-16% All Purpose
Strong heavy and herbal, spicy aroma and high bittering value (along with desirable growing traits) has brought this hop variety to the forefront of the industry.  Selected from a cross between Brewer's Gold and a high alpha male.
Used For: Extremely bitter. All Ales, Stouts
Subs: Chinook, Galena, Cluster


OLYMPIC 11-13% Bittering
Moderate aroma. Similar to Chinook and Brewers Gold.
Used for: Mainly bittering. Stouts and Dark ales.
Substitutes: Brewers Gold, Chinook, Galena.


OMEGA 9-11% Bittering
A very new very bitter hop.
Used For: General bittering lagers, ales, stouts
Substitutes: any high alpha


ORION 6-8% Finishing - Flavor
Classic Noble style, Dual Use hop from Germany.  Not much info available
Use For: German ales and lagers
Substitutes: any noble hop


PACIFICA (NZ) 5-6% FinishingThe Pacifica brings something of a blend of new and old-world taste descriptors to the brewers' forum. Orange marmalade aptly describes the citrus aroma notes achieved through late addition.  Bittering quality is such that early kettle additions net a soft yet solid finish even in highly bittered beers.
Used For: Aroma Hop in multiple styles
Substitutes:


PACIFIC GEM (NZ) 15-17% Bittering
A pleasing fruity aroma of blackberries with a woodsy flavor are the essence of this variety used mainly as a bittering agent in organic beers.
Used For: Organic Pale Ales, IPAs
Substitutes:


PACIFIC JADE (NZ)12-14% All Purpose
The aroma of this hop is described as “bold” as it delivers a herbal infusion of fresh citrus and crushed black pepper.  The citrus aroma and flavour notes work well to temper malt sweetness in “fullish” Ales especially when used moderately as a finishing hop.
Used For: Dry Lagers
Substitutes:


PALISADE 6-9% Finishing
Aroma described as floral,  Subtle Apricot,  Grassy or  ”Pretty”. Non-aggressive, smooth hop flavor with a fruity, non-citrusy aroma more characteristic of english style Pale ales.
Use For: Baetter for Aroma and flavor in english style ales despite the high alpha.
Substitutes: Glacier


PERLE 7-9% All Purpose
A palate-pleaser with its moderate,pleasant, minty clean bittering qualities and refreshing, spicy "green hop" aroma.  Derived from English Notheren Brewer.
Used For:  bittering and good  aromas. A wide range from Pale Ale to Lager to Stout
Substitutes: Northern Brewer, Cluster, Galena


PHOENIX 10-12% Bittering
Attractive English aroma (sources say similar to challenger) with high alpha-acid.  Use as an aroma hop were reportedly dissapointing.
Use For: English Ales including porters, stouts, ESBs, and bitters.
Substitutes: Challenger


PIONEER 8-10% dual Purpose
New dwarf variety with clean bitterness and mild English aroma.  Unusual pleasant lemon/grapefruit citrus aroma distinctively hoppy.
Use For: English Ales, ESBs, and bitters.
Substitutes: Yeoman, Herald, Omega


PRIDE OF RINGWOOD (AU) 7-10% All Purpose
Quite pronounced aroma but not unpleasant, citrus-like. At the time of release in 1965 it was the highest alpha hop in the world. closely associated with such famous beers as Foster's Lager.
Used For:  Predominantly bittering but with interesting aromatic qualities. British ales, Australian- style ales and lagers.
Substitutes: Centennial, Galena, Cluster


PROGRESS  5-8% dual Purpose
Simular to Fuggles but a little sweeter. aka UK Progress and Wye Progress. Bred from Whitbred Goldings Vareity but with an assertive fruity aroma.  Robust, Fruity, Lime. M. Jackson called them “junipery”.
Used For: Widely used for real cask ales. English and Scottish ales
Substitutes: Goldings and Fuggles.


RIWAKA (NZ) 4.5-6.5% Finishing
powerful grapefruit “citrus” characters are literally breathtaking.  A punchy addition to the new-world styles of Pale Ale and regional Pilseners. A cult hero that is established in the New Zealand craft beer culture.
Used For: Pale ales or any hop dominant ale
Substitutes:


SAAZ - Domestic 3-5% Finishing
U.S. equivalent of the Czech variety, but lacks some of the fine-ness of aroma. The Old World steadfast standby made famous by Pilsner Urquell possesses the aromatic blend of earth and spice notable in European nobles. Low bittering value.
Used For: Finishing, very flavorful. Pilseners,Continental lagers and Wheats.
Substitutes: Czech Saaz (some would claim there is no substitute)


SAAZ - Czech 3-4.5% Finishing
Very mild with pleasant hoppy notes.  Classical noble aroma hop with long and strong traditions. Associated with the renowned Pilsner Urquell lager.
Used For: Finishing. Bohemian-style beers, Continental lagers, Wheats, Pilsener lagers.
Substitutes: Tettnang (Only in a pinch), U.S. Saaz (some would claim there is no substitute)


SANTIAM 5.5-8% Finishing
Resembles a Noble hop aroma. Herbal. Floral. This is a mixture of Tettnanger, Mittelfruh, Cascades,and who knows what else. Aroma is a suggestion of Tettnanger.  Another product of Corvallis Oregon (Go Beavers!).
Used For: American Lagers, German Lagers and Ales, and Wheat beers.
Substitutes: Citra


SAPHIR 3-4.5% Finishing
Refined, sweet, mild clean citrus, hint of tangerine. It was bred with a Hallertau parent and probably a long list of other hops to make it more commercially viable.
Used For: Plisners, German lagers, Belgian whites
Substitutes: Hallertau Mittelfruh


SIMCOE - 12-14%  - Bittering - Flavor
Aromas of passionfruit, apricot, Intense pine and woodsy aroma adds to the fresh, youthful vigor of this complex hop.  Dual purpose but generally considered a bittering hop.
Used For: American Ales, IPAs, Double IPAs
Subs: Amarillo Cascade Centennial (a blend of these might come closer)


SLADEK  - Czech  9-10% Finishing   
Hybrid aroma variety of Saaz type with excellent impact on hoppy taste and aroma of beer. New dual purpose Czech hop.
Used For: Lagers
Substitutes: Saaz


SORACHI ACE 13-16%  Bittering
A Japanese winner by all counts with its powerful lemon aroma, high bittering value and flavorful personality.
Used For: American Ales, lagers, Pale Ales, Wheat
Substitutes:


SOUTHERN CROSS NZ 12% Bittering
The aroma is characterised by a heady mix of lemon peel and pine needles layered beneath the clean spiciness.  Primarily a bittering hop but reported to have a nice mellow aroma as a late addition hop.
Used For: Australian Lagers
Substitutes:


SPALTER 3-6% Finishing
Traditional German noble hop.  A Saaz alternative, Aromatic and flavorful.
Used For: Great in German lagers
Substitutes: Saaz, Tettnang, Ultra


STERLING 6-9% Aroma - Bittering
Herbs and spices dominate, flowers and citrus around the fringes. Moderate bittering values with a mix of Saaz and Mt. Hood properties.
Used For: Ale, Pilsner, Lager
Subs: Saaz, Mt Hood


STICKLEBRACT 9-11% Bittering
Noted for its  piney, citrusy aroma. May give a unique New Zealand twist to English beer styles. Coarse, high-alpha acid variety.
Used For: primarily ales
Substitutes:


STYRIAN GOLDINGS 4-6% Finishing
Delicate, slightly spicy, soft and floral. A world renowned aroma hop with widespread usage in both ale and lager brewing. An ecotype of Fuggle grown in Slovenia.
Used For: Bittering, finishing, dry hopping. english style ales, Vienna/Oktoberfest lagers, Belgian ales, Pilseners.
Substitutes: Fuggle, Willamette.


SUMMIT (Dwarf) 17.5–19.5% Bittering
Quite new on the scene (2003) but the consensus is very positive with its “peak” bittering value coupled with robust citrus notes of orange, tangerine and grapefruit. Receiving accolades as an ideal hop for the ultimate Pale Ale.
Used For:  Pale Ale,  IPA Drifter Pale Ale, Widmer Brothers
Substitutes: Simcoe


SUN 15-16% Bittering
A super alpha hop. Not much info on this one.
Used For:
Substitutes:


SUPER ALPHA (NZ) 10-12% All Purpose
Slight fresh grassiness beneath a mix of aromas such as pine needles and lemongrass.  A very versatile hop in the brew house where it can be used to deliver a very crisp bitter edge on the back pallet as well as excellent aroma qualities. Like most New Zealand varieties the exceptional oil profile sets it apart as a hop with many applications. 
Used For:
Substitutes:


TALISMAN   7-9%       An improved Cluster variety. Not much more info available.
Used For:
Substitutes:


TARGET  10-12% All Purpose
Widely used for high alpha acid content comined with an acceptable aroma. Pleasant English hop aroma, quite intense.
Used For: Robust bittering. British ales and lagers.
Substitutes: None really quite like it, maybe East Kent Goldings or Northdown.


TAURUS  12-15%  Bittering
Ultra high-alpha acid variety of Hallertau, giving medium bitterness. It has a distinctive hoppy tang with a delicate aroma.
Use For:
Substitutes:
Magnum, Citra, Tradition


TETTNANG 4-5% Finishing
Fine, very spicy, mild, floral, very aromatic. Recently established in the U.S., traditional German variety, true noble aroma variety.
Used For: Finishing. Wheats and lagers.
Substitutes: Saaz, Spalter, Ultra


TOMAHAWK 14-17% Bittering
Earthy, spicy, pungent, with some citrus overtones.  Not overwhelmingly citrus like Cascade.  High on the bittering scale yet also valued for its oil content creates a hop that is an interesting dichotomy of sharp and herbal.
Used For: Bittering American style ales, stouts
Substitutes: AKA Columbus ,Zeus


TRADITION  10-13%  Bittering
High-alpha acid Hallertau variety with German characteristics grown to replace Hersbrucker.
Use For: Lagers, Pilsner, Bock, Wheat, Weizen
Substitutes: Magnum, Hersbrucker, Taurus


ULTRA 3% Finishing
Newer domestic aroma variety with Saaz characteristics. Very fine, mild, spicy with floral notes. Bred as a substitute for Hallertauer Mittelfrüh.
Used For: finishing hop for Pilsner and German style lagers.
Substitutes: Hallertau, Any Noble hop, Crystal, Liberty, Mt. Hood


VANGUARD 4-6% Finishing
Slightly flowery, mild.  Similar to Hallertau Mittlefruh and saaz in aroma.  A gentle hop for subtle bitterness, aroma, and flavor.
Use For: Use in not-so-overly-malty beers.   Light lagers, Pilsners, Kolsch, Wheat, and Munich Helles.
Substitutes:


WARRIOR 14.5- 17.0% Bittering
Grapefruity and lemony, some piney notes.  Also saw pineapple as a descriptor.  Its high bittering value and very mild aroma offers new dimensions to IPA & Double IPA brewers.
Used For: bittering big beers like Dogfish Head IPA.
Substitutes: About any high alpha


WILLAMETTE 4-6%  Finishing
The king of aroma hops in the U.S. with its modest bittering value and the joyous harmony of flowers, fruit, earth and spice. A quality aroma hop with a smooth soft flavor.
Used For: Finishing, dry hopping. American and British ales and lagers.
Substitutes: Fuggle, Styrian Goldings, Kent Goldings.


YEOMAN 9-14% Bittering
A popular bittering hop in the U.K.Similar to Targets.Not too available in the U.S.
Used For:  British ales and lagers
Substitutes: Target


ZENITH 9-10%
Has a good aroma.Not too available.If found can be used in
Used For:  British ales and lagers.A.A
Substitutes:


ZEUS 14-17% Bittering
Earthy, spicy, pungent, with some citrus overtones.  Not overwhelmingly citrus like Cascade.  High on the bittering scale yet also valued for its oil content creates a hop that is an interesting dichotomy of sharp and herbal.
Used For: Bittering American style ales, stouts
Subs: AKA Columbus ,Tomahawk

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